Corporate Super Funds
Taxation Issues In A Federal State And Economic Groupings With Concurrent Taxing Authorities : Proceedings Of A Seminar Held In Geneva In 1996 During The 50th Congress Of The International Fiscal Association
The formation of economic groupings to foster free trade among sovereign member states is one of the most remarkable developments of the second half of the 20th century. These groupings, unlike those of a federal state, fall short of political union status. In the area of taxation, however, an economic grouping and a federal state with concurrent taxing authorities share common issues.The papers in this book were prepared for a recent panel on the subject at the 50th Congress of the International Fiscal Association (IFA). The panel brought participants from various parts of the globe together to examine the United States of America, Australia, and Brazil as federal states and the European Union as a non-federal economic grouping.The conference discussion centered on four principles:non-discrimination and the notion that free trade could only be achieved if the individual member states were prohibited from using local tax measures to inhibit the free flow of goods and services within the zone; 'locational neutrality,' limiting the ability of local taxing authorities to enact taxing measures which, for example, give tax incentives to enterprises of another member state and which result in distortions in the economy, and 'national coherence', the often-advocated solution to this result; enforcement and collection of taxes; and desirability of having the member states of the federal states or economic grouping uniformly bound by international commitments made by their central authority.Through these various topics emerges the conclusion that, despite the universal recognition that the taxing power of individual member states must be limited, no single solution will achieve the overriding goal of the free flow of goods, capital, and people.
This book brings together the work of scholars from England, France, Germany, Sweden, and the United States to examine the ways in which industrialized nations have used and are developing tax laws to help alleviate environmental problems. For each country, the contributors offer a thorough review of existing and proposed initiatives and an in-depth evaluation of their effectiveness. They also discuss the theoretical framework behind environmental tax initiatives, explain alternative systems to taxation, reveal problems in dealing with environmental concerns that are common to all of the countries studied, and suggest ways to more efficiently coordinate tax and environmental policies. Based on their research, the contributors conclude that the general tax systems of the United States and other countries unintentionally conflict with environmental policies and that no country has yet been able to adequately control automobile pollution, although some have had varying degrees of success in other areas. The volume begins with an introduction that presents a nontechnical discussion of the current economic thinking on environmental taxes and alternatives such as direct government regulation and granting polluters limited or tradable rights to pollute. The following chapters discuss each country in turn. Each chapter first examines the institutional framework of the country--central versus regional government, how legislation is enacted and executed, the distribution of authority over environmental matters, and important environmental policy goals. Next, the compatability of the tax system with environmental goals is analyzed. Finally, there is a thorough treatment of that country's environmental tax initiatives, including an in-depth assessment of their relative success or failure. Policymakers, lobbyists, economists, and attorneys will find Taxation for Environmental Protection enlightening reading.
In the twentieth century the application of national taxes to income from international business has created complex yet fascinating issues. The co-ordination of national jurisdiction to tax international income has rested formally on a network of bilateral treaties, but its practical administration has relied on a community of specialists; business advisers on the one hand and national officials on the other. The rapid growth of transnational corporations has put great pressure on the international tax system, especially due to the increasing difficulty of ensuring that the internal transfer prices between related firms in different countries reflect a fair and acceptable allocation of costs and profits. Furthermore, the widespread use of intermediary companies formed in tax havens has led to complex counter-measures and a constant process of treaty renegotiation and interaction with national law. The increasingly close administrative co-operation of tax authorities has been criticized as secretive and often arbitrary. Yet proposals for a more comprehensive framework and clearer legitimizing principles and procedures have conflicted with both the vested interests of international firms and with sensitivities about national sovereignity. But major reforms are necessary, even if implemented piecemeal. Using perspectives from law, economics and social science, this book provides a systematic introduction to the major problems of international taxation of business income. In doing so, it retrieves important policy issues that have become buried in technical intricacies of the international taxation system.
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